SIZE: Crowfield points range from ca. 40-65 mm in length (mean 54), 22 to 35 in maximum width (mean 30.8), 3-5 in thickness (mean 4.6) and 13-23 (mean 17.9) in basal width. Basal concavities are shallow (0.5-4; mean 2.1).
SHAPE: The points have small pointed ears and lack fishtails. Lateral basal edges markedly expand from the base to a maximum width around or (if the point is largely unresharpened) above, mid-point. The points are very broad and thin (width to thickness ratios of ca. 5-8 to 1) with very flat biconvex to plano-convex cross-sections.
FLAKING: The points exhibit a collateral retouch which does not tend to consistently terminate at any one point on the biface surface such as the mid-line. Because of the oblique lateral basal edge orientation vis a vis the mid-line of the point, retouch tends to be somewhat oblique from each edge (almost a “chevron” pattern) near the base. The points are very well-fluted. Flutes tend to extend from 1/2 to 3/4 of point length and are often multiple (2 to 3 flutes to a face). The lateral flute edges can expand markedly from the base. Bases are consistently finished by a short, abrupt, parallel retouch in the basal concavity. Lateral basal edges and concavities are lightly ground.
RAW MATERIAL: At the type site, Onondaga chert was predominantly used. However, specimens from the type site and other areas of Ontario are on Collingwood (Fossil Hill formation) chart.
DISTRIBUTION: These points are found throughout the central to eastern Great Lakes area. Some points from the Reagen site in Vermont (Ritchie,1953) may be of this type.
AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATION: No C-14 dates are available for Crowfield points. They are believed to be the latest fluted point form in the area and to date to ca. 10,500-10,400 B.P.
REMARKS: Some points have resharpening which forms straight tip edges oblique to the point mid-lire. With the markedly expanding basal edges, this gives the points a pentagonal or five-sided appearance. A few points which are probably specialized cutting tools have distinct shoulders and more extensive resharpening on one lateral edge. Crowfield points are best known from the type site west of London (Deller and Ellis, 1984). However, other sites such as Udora (Storck,1982) have been reported from south-central Ontario.