SIZE: Genesee points range in length from 45-115 mm; in part, this wide variation is due to resharpening and repointing (e.g. the stubby bladed point illustrated in the bottom right). Widths vary from 25-60 mm, most falling between 30 and 45 mm. Stem widths range from 15-28 mm although most specimens measure between 20 and 25 mm. Maximum thickness ranges from 7-13 mm.
SHAPE: Blade configuration is variable: convex shapes are the most common. Concavo-convex (ogival) blades are found, particularly in the Niagara Peninsula. Stems are straight sided, but some specimens have stems that are somewhat expanding or contracting. Bases are usually slightly concave. Cross-sections are lenticular.
FLAKING: The flaking is usually well executed. The primary retouching, which entirely covers both faces, consists of wide, expanding flake scars. Secondary or marginal retouching is used where it is required to produce an even, sharp edge. The sides of the stem and the base often display slight grinding (or haft wear) but this is rarely as pronounced as it is in many Paleo-Indian and earlier Archaic points.
RAW MATERIAL: Onondaga chert is the most popular material, especially near outcrop sources in the Grand River – Niagara Peninsula area. In the Lake Huron and St. Clair drainages, Kettle Point chert and coarse-grained rocks (particularly greywacke) are commonly used.
DISTRIBUTION: In south-western Ontario, most Genesees are found in the Carolinian biotic province.
AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS: Late Archaic. The Ontario Genesee points probably date to sometime between 1900 and 1400 B.C. The one available carbon date for south-western Ontario is 1830 B.C. (from the Ausable River). Similar stemmed, broad-bladed points (sometimes called “broadpoints” or “broadspears”) are found widely over the Eastern U.S. during the second millenium B.C.
REMARKS: Many of the points were produced from a distinctive five-sided or pentagonal preform. The specimens made from greywacke and similar “rough’ rocks are usually called “Satchell” points by archaeologists working in Michigan.