SIZE: Point measurements from the Adder Orchard site are: Length = 41-78 mm (mean of 59.3); Shoulder Width = 19-38 mm (28.4); Stem Width = 16-27 mm (22.7); Base Width = 15-24 mm (19.7); Blade Length = 26-54 mm (40.0); Shoulder Height – 14-27 mm (19.6); Stem Length = 12-26 mm (17.4); Thickness = 7-15 mm (10.0).

SHAPE: Adder Orchard stemmed points have narrow lanceolate blades, and are distinctive by their excurvate blade shape, the point of maximum width usually being well above the shoulder. Shoulders tend to flare out slightly from the stem. Occasionally these points are marked by a slight spur which projects laterally from the base. Stems are parallel-sided to contracting in shape.

FLAKING: Flaking is usually well executed. Primary retouching consists of wide, expanding flake scars. Secondary or marginal retouching is used where it is required to produce an even, sharp edge. Stems are often lightly ground or rubbed, but not to the degree visible on many Paleo-Indian and earlier Archaic points.

RAW MATERIAL: At the Adder Orchard site, points from Kettle Point chert represent 58% of the collection. Onondaga Chert is represented in about a third of the specimens, while only two points were made from greywacke (Kenyon 1983).

DISTRIBUTION: Adder Orchard points are found in south-western Ontario, most notably from the Ausable Valley in the south-eastern Huron basin.

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATION: Late Archaic. Similar points have been found at the Pinegrove Cemetery in Michigan, which has C-14 dates of 1060 BC. and 1355 BC. (Simons 1972). A C-14 date from Adder Orchard of 1900 +/- 90 B.C. is also considered acceptable (Kenyon 1983). These points probably date between 2000 and 1000 BC. These points represent a distinct type related to the “Christmas Tree” points of the Satchell complex (Kenyon 1980b). Adder Orchards are also similar to Springtown points in Ohio, which have been mistakenly identified as being Plano (Prufer and Baby 1963).

REMARKS: It has been suggested (Kenyon 1983: 11) that Adder Orchard points might be slightly later than the broad-bladed “Christmas Tree” points, and may represent an evolving regional varient. While points evolving from Genesee’s in the east (Niagara Peninsula and New York) retain a basic Trianguloid blade shape, through time their stems become more contracted and shorter. Adder Orchard points, on the other hand, appear to represent a western varient, for which long, parallel sided stems are retained, but whose blades become increasingly narrower and more excurvate.

REFERENCE: Ferris, N. and I. Kenyon. – 1987 Adder Orchard Points. KEWA 87-5. ( Text of Original Publication )