SIZE: Barnes points range from ca. 35- 105 mm in length (mean 61.2), 15-25 mm in maximum width (mean 21.5), 3.5-8 mm in thickness (mean 5.7), and 14-20 mm in basal width (mean 17.4). Basal concavity depth ranges from ca. 2-6 mm (mean 3.9).

SHAPE: Most points have “fishtails”. Lateral base edges expand moderately from the “waist” above the fishtail to a maximum width at, or (if the point is largely unresharpened) just below midpoint. The points tend to be narrow and thick (width to thickness ratios of ca. 3-4.5 to 1) with marked biconvex or lenticular cross-sections.

FLAKING: The points exhibit well-executed parallel-collateral flaking which terminates along the mid-line on each face. The ridge formed by these terminations down the mid-line was used as a guide for long (up to 80 mm), single, parallel-sided flutes. Flutes tend to extend to the tip on one face and from 1/2 to 3/4 of length on the other. There are never more than 2 flutes to a face. Often, the base of the flute has been widened and the base thinned by the subsequent removal of a single, short, broad flake (the “Barnes” finishing technique; see Roosa 1965). Lateral basal edges and basal concavities are lightly ground.

RAW MATERIAL: In north south-western to south-central Ontario, most points are made on Collingwood (Fossil Hill formation) chert while in more southerly areas of Ontario, Onondaga chart is common. In eastern Michigan most points are on Bayport chert, while those in northern Ohio tend to be made on Tenmile Creek chert.

DISTRIBUTION: Barnes points are diagnostic of the Parkhill industry or complex which occurs in southern Ontario, eastern Michigan, northern Ohio and western New York state.

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS: No C-14 dates are available for Barnes points but they are guess-dated to ca. 10,700 to 10,600 B.P. The points are somewhat similar to Cumberland fluted points found farther south.

REMARKS: The Parkhill complex is probably the best known of all north-eastern PaleoIndian complexes but little has yet been published. Major excavations have been carried out at the Parkhill, Fisher and Thedford II sites in Ontario and the Barnes site in Michigan. Sites of the complex are often associated with the strandline of glacial Lake Algonquin.

Additional information not included with the original publication.

For pictures of Barnes points see The Parkhill Site and The Thedford 2 Site by Dr. Chris Ellis.