SIZE: These bifaces range between 40 and 70 mm. in maximum length, 18 and 28 mm. in width, 4 to 7 mm. in thickness and 14 to 20 mm. in inter-notch breadth. 

SHAPE: Both the lateral and basal edge configurations are usually convex; however, bases are straight on occasion. Side notches which are aligned perpendicular to the biface long axis or at times angled toward the tip characterize the hafting element. Cross sections have a flattened lenticular bi-convex form. 

FLAKING: While the patterning is irregular, Meadowood bifaces display distinctive flat flake scars which allow production of these relatively thin, smooth surfaced tools. Removal of wide, thin biface retouch flakes is facilitated through the use of a soft pressure flaking tool, and it is perhaps significant that Ritchie (1965) recovered a native copper flaker from the Muskalonge Lake Meadowood grave in New York. 

RAW MATERIAL: Virtually all Meadowood bifaces are manufactured of Onondaga chert, but an occasional specimen of Kettle Point chert has been documented. 

DISTRIBUTION: These bifaces occur throughout South-western Ontario, from Bruce County in the north to Essex County in the west and into New York State to the east. 

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS: Meadowood “points” are the best known and most easily recognized biface form of the Early Woodland period in South-western Ontario. The Bruce Boyd site date of 520 B.C. (Spence et al., 1978) is assumed to pertain to this tool form and compares well with I. Kenyon’s 530 B.C. date for an Early Woodland Vinette I vessel in the Ausable River drainage. Early radio-carbon dates in New York State range as far back as 998 B.C. 

REMARKS: This distinctive biface tool form often occurs in mortuary caches (Spence, 1978 and Williamson, 1978), but is also widely distributed on small camp and Onondaga chert quarry sites (Jamieson, n.d.). Most appear to have been manufactured in the vicinity of Onondaga chert outcrops/quarries and then transported in considerable numbers throughout South-western Ontario, where they were accepted by a variety of groups participating in locally developed Late Archaic tool production systems. 

REFERENCE: Kenyon, I. – 1980 Meadowood Points. KEWA 80-5. ( Text of Original Publication )

For pictures of Meadowood Points see The Welke-Tonkonoh Siteby Dr. Chris Ellis.